Dougal Dixon "The New Dinosaurs"
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Dougal Dixon

The New Dinosaurs
An alternative evolution


THE NEW
DINOSAURS

AN ALTERNATIVE EVOLUTION

DOUGAL DIXON

 

FOREWORD BY DESMOND MORRIS

Salem House Publishers
Topsfield, Massachusetts

Text copyright Dougal Dixon 1988
This edition copyright Eddison/Sadd Editions 1988

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized
in any form, or by any means, electronic or mechanical including
photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without the prior written agreement of the publisher.

First published in the United States by Salem House Publishers, 1988,
462 Boston Street, Topsfield, MA 01983.

Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Dixon, Dougal.
The new dinosaurs.

1. Dinosaurs. I. Title.
QE862.D5D55 1988 567.9'1 88-1994
ISBN 0-88162-301-6

AN EDDISON-SADD EDITION
Edited, designed and produced by
Eddison/Sadd Editions Limited
St Chads Court, 146B Kings Cross Road, London WC1X 9DH

Phototypeset by Bookworm Typesetting, Manchester, England
Origination by Columbia Offset, Singapore
Printing, binding and manufacture in Spain by Graficas Estella, S.A.


CONTENTS

FOREWORD
THE GREAT EXTINCTION 6
WHAT IS A DINOSAUR? 10
THE NEW TREE OF LIFE 12
PALAEOGEOGRAPHY 16
ZOOGEOGRAPHY 18
THE HABITATS 20

THE NEW DINOSAURS 29
THE ETHIOPIAN REALM 30
THE PALAEARCTIC REALM 42
THE NEARCTIC REALM 54
THE NEOTROPICAL REALM 66
THE ORIENTAL REALM 78
THE AUSTRALASIAN REALM 88
THE OCEANS 100
CONCLUSION 108

AFTERWORD 109
GLOSSARY 113
FURTHER READING 115
INDEX 116
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 120


FOR LINDSAY

 


FOREWORD

For the many who enjoyed, as I did, Dougal Dixons first book of imaginary animals AFTER MAN, A ZOOLOGY OF THE FUTURE his new volume will provide further delights. There is the same technical skill, the same brilliant inventiveness and, without question, the same joyous celebration of the evolutionary process. As before, the author has never allowed his imaginative leaps to go beyond the bounds of biological possibility, and it is this self-discipline that puts his fictitious fauna streets ahead of anything found elsewhere, in either science fiction writing or in Hollywood films about lost worlds or primeval struggles.
As a zoologist I nearly always find myself disappointed by other peoples imaginary animals. The monsters they concoct are usually boringly obvious or totally improbable. But Dougal Dixon knows exactly what he is doing and gives such conviction to his creatures that it is sometimes hard to convince oneself that, somewhere, at some time or other, they have not really existed - and perhaps even exist today, if only we could be lucky enough to discover them.
With each turn of the page I am excited to find what new form will greet my eyes, and I am rarely disappointed. The only let-down is the realization that, despite their amazingly detailed representations, we will never be able to come face to face with a living Dougaloid. But no matter, they will always be here between the covers of his books, for us to enjoy whenever we feel the need to release ourselves from the tyranny of the world as it is, and enjoy how it might have been.
By making a single, simple alteration in the earths prehistory, namely the absence of the catastrophe that wiped out the great dinosaurs, Dixon has set us off on a new evolutionary voyage a truly creative endeavour and one which I have relished from start to finish. What he has done with both AFTER MAN and THE NEW DINOSAURS is so exciting that I feel it deserves a special name of its own: Alternative Zoology. And I for one cannot wait for the next volume to appear, when, who knows, the author may take us off to another planet altogether, where a parallel evolutionary process has taken place, guided by the special environmental conditions that exist there. In Dixons safe hands, what a wonderful safari that could be.


THE GREAT EXTINCTION

THE THEORIES

The dinosaurs were some of the most magnificent creatures that ever lived. They evolved in the late Triassic period, about 220 million years ago, and from humble crocodile-like origins, became the most varied and abundant animals on Earth.
Nimble, darting, brightly coloured meat-eaters chased lizards through the ferny undergrowth. Big meat-eaters strode dragon-like through the forests hunting slow-moving prey. Huge long-necked plant-eaters, veritable mountains of flesh, roamed open plains and woodlands in family groups, browsing from the tops of the trees, and keeping wary eyes open for the predacious hunters. Small, fleet-footed plant-eaters sprinted on their long hind legs from one patch of vegetation to another, snatching at leaves and shoots, and quickly ducking away when danger threatened. Lumbering armoured plant-eaters, safe behind their flamboyant and colourful plates and horns, chomped and chewed the prolific vegetation in the warm and equable climates of the long, tranquil Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
For over 180 million years they were the most successful life form on the planet.
And then they all disappeared.
The Great Extinction, as their disappearance has come to be known, befell the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 65 million years ago. At this time not just the dinosaurs but about 75 per cent of all living creatures were wiped from the face of the Earth.
The rocks supply the evidence. The strata that date from before this time contain the fossils of the kinds of animals that had been present for 150 million years previously. Rocks that formed from continental deposits, such as shales and mudstones from river sediments, and sandstones from deserts, contain the remains of dinosaurs and flying pterosaurs. Rocks that formed in the sea, such as limestones and chalk, contain the fossils of sea reptiles like plesiosaurs and mosasaurs, the ubiquitous pterosaurs, and invertebrates like the tentacled shellfish, the ammonites.
Then there is a break in the strata and the rocks immediately above exhibit a different picture of life on Earth. No dinosaurs or pterosaurs are evident here. Nor are there fossils of marine reptiles or ammonites. Something had happened to change things completely. This break gives a useful boundary for geological dating. The time before the break is called the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era. Creta is the Greek word for chalk and the period is named for the deposits of chalk that were laid down in the sea at this time. The time immediately after the break is called the Palaeocene epoch of the Tertiary period. Palaeocene means the ancient epoch of modern life and the modern life referred to here means, basically, the mammals.
Up to this point the mammals had been very small and insignificant, scuttling mouse-like among the feet of the dinosaurs and scrambling squirrel-like up trees beyond their reach. Throughout the 150 million-year Age of Reptiles they did not amount to much at all. Then, as the dinosaurs and the other great reptiles disappeared, they came into their own. It is the way of evolution that, once a particular animal dies out, something else will soon develop to take its place. Wherever there is a food source that is not exploited, an animal will evolve to exploit it. With the total disappearance of the great reptiles, there was a complete replacement by new creatures, and these new creatures were the mammals. Pigs and elephants evolved to take the place of the herbivorous dinosaurs. Strange wolf-like mammals called creodonts evolved to prey on them, taking the place of the carnivorous dinosaurs. In the absence of pterosaurs, the bats evolved. In the seas, whales and seals developed to take the place of the plesiosaurs and mosasaurs. The Age of Reptiles had clearly given way to the Age of Mammals.
How had this great change come about? It was certainly nothing to do with the mammals becoming stronger and more successful and hence ousting the reptiles. As we have seen, it was the other way round. Something else had killed off the creatures that had been established for 150 million years. The cause may have been sudden, or it may have been gradual. The geological record is deceptive when it comes to calculating time. A million years is a mere eye-blink and may be represented by a bed of rock a few centimetres thick or even no rock at all.

It could have been a bang

It may have come as a bolt from the blue. For as long as scientists have been puzzling over the question of the extinction of the great reptiles, there have been theories suggesting that some extraterrestrial cataclysm was responsible. The notion of a nearby supernova was once popular. According to this theory there had been an explosion of a star a few light years from this planet. The Earth was bathed in lethal doses of ultra-violet radiation, and a few years later the dust from the explosion passed through our solar system dimming the warmth of the sun. All this was too much for the reptiles, who had become used to a period of settled conditions, and they died out. This particular theory is no longer widely held.
A more spectacular and more recent theory is that of a meteorite impact. According to this idea a meteorite about 10 kilometres (6 m) in diameter may have struck the Earth about 65 million years ago. This caused a great explosion sending clouds of dust, sixty times the mass of the meteorite itself, up into the atmosphere. These clouds produced a perpetual overcast blotting out the sun for months, or even years. Temperatures fell worldwide, and with no sun the plants died back. Added to this, the heat of the impact produced chemical changes in the local atmosphere, generating nitrogen oxides that spread over large areas as acid rain. The plant-eating dinosaurs perished without food, and the meat-eaters also died out when their prey disappeared. In the oceans there was a similar collapse in the food chain, with planktonic organisms dying, thus killing off the creatures that fed on them. Once the skies cleared the plants grew again, since most plants can remain dormant for a short period, but all the big animals were gone. Only small creatures like the contemporary mammals were able to avoid the chaos, probably by digging underground and hibernating.
Alternatively, the impact may have been caused by a comet rather than a meteorite. Since a comet consists of much lighter material than a meteorite, it would have taken a very large comet, or indeed a swarm of comets, to produce the damage needed to cause the extinctions. There is a theory that our sun has another star as a near neighbour, and every 26 million years or so the relative positions of these two bodies generates a large number of comets that could bombard the planets of the solar system including the Earth. The timing of the other mass extinctions in the fossil record for the end of the Cretaceous was not a unique event suggests that there was a regular factor such as this involved.
But if these theories are to be believed, where is the crater that the impact of a meteorite or a comet would have made? Had the extraterrestrial body landed on a continent it would certainly have left some mark that would have been visible today. However, since two-thirds of the Earths surface is covered by sea, there is a strong likelihood that the meteorite or comet would have landed in an ocean area and the site has remained undiscovered, or has been swallowed up by the natural processes of plate tectonics, or the movement of the outer layers of the Earths structure.

Periodic extinctions
The extinction of much of the animal life of the world at the end of the Cretaceous period was not an isolated event. Mass extinctions have occurred throughout time. In a mass extinction in Devonian times, the graptolites (Monograptus, a) small colonial creatures that had drifted in the oceans since the Cambrian - died out along with many other sea animals. At the end of the Permian, huge land-living amphibians and most of the mammal-like reptiles (Dicynodon, b) died out. The early Cretaceous saw the extinction of ichthyosaurs (Ophthalmosaurus, c) among other beasts. The late Cretaceous event was important from the point of view of large land-living animals (Triceratops, d), but a further extinction in the Tertiary removed many primitive mammals, like the meat-eating creodonts (Sarkastodon, e), and replaced them with more modern types.

An impact in the sea would introduce another lethal factor. The huge clouds of steam blasted into the atmosphere would cast an insulating blanket around the Earth, retaining its heat. The temperatures at the Earths surface would therefore rise, like in a greenhouse, upsetting the delicate balance of climate that had existed for so long. A temperature rise of 10 degrees Celsius (18F) perfectly feasible under the circumstances would have been enough to cause the biological disaster.
Evidence for an extraterrestrial assault of some kind comes from a layer of clay found at about fifty places on the Earths surface where the rocks grade upwards from Cretaceous to Palaeocene deposits. This layer is rich in the metal iridium, rarely found at the Earths surface. There is about twenty times as much iridium in this layer than would normally be expected. Iridium is very dense and so the greatest concentrations in the Earth lie at great depths below the crust. Iridium is, however, quite common in meteorites and other interplanetary bodies. This widespread deposit appearing at the end of the Cretaceous period may well have come from the dusty debris of a gigantic meteorite impact.
Further chemical analysis of these rocks gives added support to the theory. There is little calcium carbonate the chemical from which shells are made in this layer of clay. This suggests that shelled creatures were not very abundant in the water at that time, possibly devastated by whatever happened above or, alternatively, the increased acidity formed by the acid rain broke down the calcium carbonate of their shells after death.
The calcium carbonate that does exist in this layer can be analysed for its isotope makeup. Atoms of a particular element may exist in different forms, or isotopes, and an element in a particular substance will have different ratios of isotopes depending on the conditions under which the substance formed. The isotopes of the oxygen and carbon in the calcium carbonate of this clay layer suggest that there was a sudden period of cooling by about 8 degrees Celsius (14F), which could be caused by the masking of the sun by dust clouds, followed by about 50,000 years of warming to about 10 degrees Celsius (18F) above normal, creating a greenhouse effect.
As a slight variation on the theme, one enormous comet entering the solar system and breaking up under the gravitational effect of the sun, could have produced thick clouds of dense interplanetary dust, causing the climatic changes on the Earth's surface without actually making direct contact.

Or it may have been a whimper

On the other hand, the Great Extinction may have been a gradual process and may have had nothing to do with force applied by outside agencies.
It is true that no dinosaurs existed after the Cretaceous, and the other creatures affected by whatever it was that changed the environment were all gone by the same time. However, what is often overlooked is the fact that these animals and plants were in decline well before this. Eleven million years before the end of the Cretaceous period there were about three dozen different types of dinosaur in North America. By the last million years of the period this number was halved. In one famous North American dinosaur site the laver rich in iridium has been found, but the last dinosaur bones lie in rocks well below it representing a gap of between 20,000 and 80,000 years and the development of the advanced Palaeocene mammals was begun during this time. The iridium layer does, however, seem to coincide with a change in plant life. Seafloor sediments, and rocks in Texas and Denmark, suggest that the iridium was deposited over a period of up to 100,000 years - too long for any deposit from a meteor strike.

The influence of continental drift
During the early Mesozoic, the continents were close to one another and much of their area was covered with shallow sea. The warm surface waters supported an abundance of animal and plant life. In the late Mesozoic, the continents were drifting apart and deep sea areas developed between them. The shallow shelf seas drained away into the colder deep sea, and mountains rose up. With the loss of the surface water habitat, sea plants and animals died.

There is good evidence, too, that the extinctions on land took place at a different time from the extinctions in the oceans. Timing like this is notoriously difficult to calibrate from the geological record. One method that is used is to study past records of the Earths magnetic field. Every now and again the magnetic field reverses, and north becomes south and vice versa. This has an effect on the magnetic minerals that are being formed in rocks at that time. By studying the magnetism of minerals in the rocks formed on land and those formed in the sea at the end of the Cretaceous period, it seems that the extinction of the land creatures took place about half a million years after that of the sea creatures.

Greenhouse effect
The different proportions of gases found in the atmosphere can have a profound effect on the climate. Normally, temperatures are kept in balance. Of the sunlight that reaches the Earths surface, some is reradiated into space as infrared rays. An increase in the proportion of atmospheric carbon dioxide or water vapour causes much of the reradiated infrared heat to be absorbed and trapped in the atmosphere, and hence the Earths surface heats up.

When all these points are taken into account, the most likely reason for the Cretaceous extinctions would seem to be the continuing process of plate tectonics. The surface of the Earth is continually on the move. The crust and the outermost part of the mantle the layer that forms the bulk of the Earth is continually being formed and destroyed. New material is forming in the oceans, along the oceanic ridges, while old material is being destroyed, swallowed up in the oceanic trenches. At the same time, the continents, trapped in this shifting surface, are carried with the movement, colliding and breaking apart as they go.
Through most of the Age of Reptiles the continents were all massed close to one another. They began to move apart in the Jurassic and were well on their way to the present positions by the time of the Cretaceous period. This movement built up great ridges deep in the oceans, and the displaced water spread over the edges of continents as shallow seas. The warm humid climate produced by this geography was ideal for the large reptiles of the time. Then, at the end of the Cretaceous, the shallow seas drained away and the new mountain ranges, particularly the Rockies, began to grow.
The sea animals that had evolved to live in the warm shallow seas could not survive as their warm water habitats were withdrawn and mixed with the cold of the open ocean. Microscopic plants and animals with shells of calcium carbonate lived in the surface waters. Their numbers now declined, which would account for the sudden absence of calcium carbonate in the sediments of the time. Fewer plants in the surface waters meant that there was now less atmospheric carbon dioxide being converted to oxygen. The cooler waters also meant that less carbon dioxide could be dissolved in the sea. There was a resultant increase in the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide tends to prevent heat from escaping the Earth and a greenhouse effect was therefore created, and the climates became much warmer. These factors would account for the isotope ratios observed in the rock sediments of that time.
With fewer shallow seas there was little sediment being deposited and consequently there are no thick sequences of rock dating from this time. This would tend to make any geological time span appear much shorter than it actually was. Similarly, whatever iridium was being erupted from the Earths interior by volcanoes at that time, particularly along the line of the new Rockies, would be concentrated in the few sediments that were being formed and so would appear to be unnaturally concentrated.
On land, the continental areas would appear to be larger, because intervening shallow seas had drained away. Land areas that had once been isolated were now connected by dry land. For instance, animals could spread across the breadth of North America where they had once been separated by a shallow central sea. They could migrate across a land bridge that had now appeared between Asia and North America. As the animals from different zones mixed with one another they competed for the same food stocks. They also brought with them diseases and parasites to which they were immune but their new neighbours were not. In return, they received their neighbours diseases and parasites also. The plant life was also being altered because of the changing climates.
Altogether, it was a difficult time for any creature. If a meteorite or a comet had happened to collide with the Earth at this time it would have administered the final blow to an already tottering system.

Alternatively...

For the purposes of this book none of that happened. The meteorite missed. The comet swarm passed by. The sea plants were able to adapt to the changing water temperatures. The land animals were able to resist the diseases and parasites of their neighbours.
In short, the animal life that had developed throughout the 150 million years of the Mesozoic era continued to evolve for at least another 65 million years without a break. And that is the basis for our book.
However, before we look at the creatures that exist in our alternative zoology of modern times, we must first look at what kind of animal the dinosaur was, and how it evolved and developed during its heyday, in the distant times of the Mesozoic era.


WHAT IS A DINOSAUR?

EVOLUTION OF THE LAND-LIVING REPTILES

According to the textbook, a dinosaur is denned as any member of the orders Saurischia and Ornithischia, two of the five orders within the reptile superorder Archosauria.
A more approachable description would be that a dinosaur is any one of the, usually large, land-living reptiles that were so abundant during the Mesozoic era; that era of geological time encompassing the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, between 284 and 65 million years ago. Emphasis is placed on the land-living part of the description. The sea reptiles of the time the long-necked plesiosaurs, the whale-like pliosaurs, the dolphin-like ichthyosaurs, the sea-lizard mosasaurs, and all the turtles were not dinosaurs. Nor were the flying reptiles the pterosaurs nor the freshwater swimmers, the crocodiles although these represent two closely related orders within the Archosauria. The Mesozoic era was, indeed, the Age of Reptiles.
The archosaurs (members of the superorder Archosauria) evolved in the late Permian period. It was a time when mammal-like reptiles were the main land-living animals. The mammal-like reptiles were a completely different reptile group from the archosaurs, developing from small lizard-type animals and evolving into hairy dog-like creatures by Triassic times. At the end of that period they died out, leaving their tiny descendants, the mammals.
During the time that the mammal-like reptiles were the most abundant of the land-living animals, the archosaurs that had similarly evolved from small lizard-like creatures, were not significant. The first order of archosaur to evolve was the Thecodontia (see pages 1215). These were rather crocodile-like creatures and many pursued a crocodile existence in streams and rivers. It was not until the mammal-like reptiles died out that the archosaurs were able to expand and develop into four orders.
The water-dwelling thecodontians developed strong swimming hind legs and a long paddling tail. When the land-living forms evolved they were able to walk on the strong hind legs with the body balanced by the long tail. They continued to be meat-eaters. These constituted the second archosaur order the Saurischia or the lizard-hipped dinosaurs. The saurischians were not all two-footed meat-eaters and some became plant-eaters. As plant-eating requires a greater volume of gut than does meat-eating, the body of these animals became larger and they could no longer balance on their hind legs. These saurischians took up a four-footed pose and developed long necks.
Another group evolved from the thecodontians were able to walk on hind legs. These were plant-eaters, but they could retain their two-footed balance because of the arrangement of their hip bones. The voluminous intestine could be held beneath the hips rather than in front of them. These were the Ornithischia the bird-hipped dinosaurs. As time went on many ornithischians also relinquished the two-footed pose and adopted the four-footed pose. These tended to develop all kinds of spectacular armour as well.
Meanwhile another group of descendants from the thecodontians had adapted to live in the skies. They began as gliders but soon developed into very sophisticated flying creatures, with wings that could flap, a small rigid body, slender hollow bones and a complex nervous system. These were members of the order Pterosauria.
A final group of archosaurs remained very conservative, pursuing the same river-wallowing, fish-eating existence of their thecodontian ancestors. Their shape changed little. These became the Crocodylia, the only archosaur group to have survived the late Cretaceous extinction (according to conventional palaeontology).

Dinosaur evolution
Many different reptile groups evolved in the late Palaeozoic era. The first to be successful were the mammal-like reptiles. Once these had died out, except for the line that produced the mammals, the archosaurs expanded and became the most important group.

Dinosaur classification
Dinosaurs are classified on their hip types. The saurischians were the lizard-hipped dinosaurs, so-called because the arrangement of the bones of the hip, with the ilium attached to the backbone, the pubis pointing forward and the ischium pointing back, was similar to that of a lizard. Meat-eating saurischians walked on two legs. Heavy-bellied plant-eating saurischians walked on four. The ornithischians were the bird-hipped dinosaurs, with the pubis swept back against the ischium, like that of a bird. The ornithischians were all plant-eaters with the pot-belly slung beneath the hips. Many armoured forms had a greatly expanded ilium to support the weight of the armour.

The dinosaurs ruled the Earth for 170 million years, they dominated all other forms of life, and they were the most successful group of creatures that ever lived. What made them so overpowering, so dominant, so successful? Basically they were a very vigorous and constantly evolving group. As conditions changed throughout the Mesozoic era, they changed to accommodate them. Where there were deserts, there were desert-living dinosaurs. Where there were swamps, there were swamp-living dinosaurs. Forests produced forest-living dinosaurs. It is likely that there were mountain-living dinosaurs as well, although this is difficult to determine since mountain animals are rarely fossilized.
There is a strong possibility that many dinosaurs were endothermic; they had the metabolism that could allow them to regulate their body heat irrespective of the external environment. This is the condition that is commonly termed warm-blooded and is found in the mammals and the birds. It produces a very high efficiency in an animal, and although a warm-blooded animal needs more food, this food can be more quickly converted into energy which can be used for longer periods. The swift, active, meat-eating saurischian dinosaurs were very probably warm-blooded, since only a warm-blooded animal could be alert and active enough to pursue the life style of these creatures. Most warm-blooded animals are covered in fur or feathers to ensure adequate heat regulation. The pterosaurs, the dinosaurs winged relatives, were definitely warm-blooded and are known to have had fur. It is possible that warm-blooded dinosaurs may have had fur or down as well. It is difficult to say, however, whether the large plant-eating dinosaurs were warmblooded. The argument against this is that the shape of the head and neck would have made it impossible for a long-necked plant-eater to consume enough food to sustain its body in a warm-blooded life style. The huge bulk of the body would probably have remained at a fairly constant temperature anyway without any complex warm-blooded system. However, sections cut through fossils of the bones of large plant-eating dinosaurs seem to suggest that they were fast-growing animals - and this characteristic is only found among warm-blooded creatures.
Structurally, the dinosaurs were very soundly built. Other reptiles have legs that appear to stick out at the side, with their bodies slung between. This is efficient enough for a small animal like a lizard, but not sufficient for supporting the bulk of a dinosaur. The dinosaurs evolved an upright stance, like that of a modern mammal. In other words, the legs were held vertically beneath the body, so that the weight of the body was carried at the top of the legs.
The skeletons of the largest dinosaurs were masterpieces of natural engineering. The legs were massive, to support the great weight, but the backbones were made of lightweight hollow struts, arranged so that maximum strength was provided by minimum bulk.
In our alternative zoology the Great Extinction did not happen. All these traits have therefore continued. The dinosaurs have evolved and adapted to the Earths changing conditions. The dinosaurs, and the other great reptiles in the air and in the sea, are still the most successful and widespread animals on the Earths surface. Now, before we explore the world of great reptiles as it is today, let us look at the history of animal life since the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago. Let us explore the evolutionary development of the giant reptiles during the subsequent Tertiary and Quaternary periods.


CONTENTS

FOREWORD
THE GREAT EXTINCTION 6
WHAT IS A DINOSAUR? 10

THE NEW TREE OF LIFE 12
PALAEOGEOGRAPHY 16
ZOOGEOGRAPHY 18
THE HABITATS 20

THE NEW DINOSAURS 29
THE ETHIOPIAN REALM 30
THE PALAEARCTIC REALM 42
THE NEARCTIC REALM 54
THE NEOTROPICAL REALM 66
THE ORIENTAL REALM 78
THE AUSTRALASIAN REALM 88
THE OCEANS 100
CONCLUSION 108

AFTERWORD 109
GLOSSARY 113
FURTHER READING 115
INDEX 116
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 120


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